Augustus Caesarism

From Heterodontosaurus Balls

Augustus Caesarism is a branch of Caesarism. It represents the thoughts and ideology of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of Roman Empire.

Augustus Caesarism emphasizes strong centralized leadership, extensive reforms to stabilize and strengthen the state, and a blend of military prowess with diplomatic skill.

History & Life of Augustus[edit | edit source]

Before the Empire[edit | edit source]

Augustus, born Gaius Octavius Thurinus in 63 BC, was the adopted heir of his great-uncle Julius Caesar. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Augustus, then known as Octavian, formed the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Lepidus to defeat Caesar's assassins. Following their victory, internal conflicts arose, leading to the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. By 27 BC, Octavian had consolidated power, and the Senate granted him the title Augustus, marking the beginning of his reign as the first Roman emperor.

Beginnings of the Empire[edit | edit source]

In 27 BC, the Roman Empire was founded. Octavian, later known as Augustus, is granted the title "Augustus" by the Roman Senate, marking the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. Augustus became the first Roman emperor. Augustus implements a series of political, military, and social reforms to stabilize and strengthen the empire. These include reorganizing the army, establishing the Praetorian Guard, and reforming the tax system. Augustus reformed the Senate by reducing its size and ensuring that it was filled with loyal supporters, but he allowed it to continue functioning as an important part of the Roman government.

In 25 BC, the Roman Empire annexed the region of Galatia, which is located in modern-day central Turkey, following the death of Galatia‘s ruler, king Amyntas of Galatia. After King Amyntas' death, Galatia became a Roman province, and this annexation was part of Augustus's broader efforts to consolidate and expand the Roman Empire.

20 BC - 10 BC[edit | edit source]

In 20 BC, diplomatic negotiations led to the return of the Roman standards (basically symbols like flags) that had been lost by Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC (the losing of standards in battle is considered very disgraceful, while recovering them is very honorable). This was indeed a significant diplomatic victory for Augustus and acted effectively as a propaganda tool.

Augustus continued the policy of resettling veterans in colonies throughout the empire, including regions such as Spain, Gaul, and the Balkans. This practice served multiple purposes: it rewarded soldiers for their service, reduced the likelihood of unrest by providing veterans with land and opportunities, and helped to Romanize and stabilize the provinces by establishing loyal Roman communities in strategic locations.

In 18 BC, Augustus enacted the Julian Laws on Morality, which included the Lex Julia de Maritandis Ordinibus and the Lex Julia de Adulteriis. These laws were part of Augustus's broader efforts to restore traditional Roman family values and strengthen the moral fabric of Roman society, promoting marriage and giving harsh penalties to anyone who committed adultery. In 17 BC, Augustus celebrated the Ludi Saeculares (Secular Games) to mark the beginning of a new saeculum (era).

In the year of 13 Before Christ, the Senate commissioned the Ara Pacis to celebrate Augustus‘s return from his campaigns in Hispania and Gaul and to honor the peace he had established. The Ara Pacis was completed and consecrated in 9 BC.

In 12 BC, the Theater of Marcellus, one of the largest and most impressive theaters in Rome, is completed and inaugurated by Augustus. Also in 12 BC, Augustus became the Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the Roman state religion. This position further consolidated his religious and political authority, allowing him to exert significant influence over Roman religious practices and integrate religious leadership with his political power. This move was part of Augustus's broader strategy to centralize authority and legitimize his rule by holding both political and religious offices.

9 BC - 14 AD (Death of Augustus)[edit | edit source]

In 2 BC, Augustus was awarded the title "Pater Patriae" (Father of the Country) by the Roman Senate. This honorary title was given in recognition of his significant contributions to the stability, prosperity, and restoration of Rome following the turmoil of the late Republic. It highlighted Augustus's role as a unifying and paternal figure for the Roman state.

In AD 4, Augustus formally adopted Tiberius as his son and heir. Along with this adoption, Tiberius was granted tribunician power for ten years, which was a significant step in preparing him for succession. This move was part of Augustus's careful planning to ensure a smooth transition of power and stability for the Roman Empire. Tiberius's tribunician power gave him significant authority, reinforcing his position as Augustus's chosen successor.

In AD 6, a significant revolt broke out in the Roman province of Pannonia. The rebellion required extensive military campaigns to suppress and was one of the more serious challenges to Roman authority during Augustus's reign. In AD 13, Augustus extended Tiberius's powers, granting him maius imperium (greater authority), which further solidified Tiberius's position as his successor.

Augustus died on August 19, 14 AD, in Nola. His stepson Tiberius succeeds him as emperor. Augustus is deified by the Roman Senate, and the Julio-Claudian Dynasty continues under Tiberius.